Tension sign/Bowstring test
Passive straight leg rise until pain is felt, flex the knee to release symptoms, apply pressure to the popliteal fossa (depression behind the knee joint). If pain returns it means sciatic nerve issues.
This test is used to determine if patient is malingering. The examiner cups the calcaneus of each leg with his/her hands. When the patient raises the leg straight, the examiner should feel pressure on calcaneus remaining onto the bed, which is used as leverage for the opposite, elevating leg. If no pressure is felt, the patient is simulating the spine problem.
Femoral nerve stretch test
Lying on the side, passively extend the leg at the hip with the knee bent at 90º. If pain, numbness or tingling is felt at the anterior/lateral thigh, it shows femoral nerve root impingement.
Stork/Single stance test
While balancing on leg, arch the spine backwards. If pain occurs, it indicates spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis.
A blunt object is run along the lateral side of the inner foot from the heel to the big toe (fanning of toes). The test is positive if the big toe extends and the other toes abduct. This is a plantar reflex and may indicate brain or spinal cord trau
The examiner runs fingernails gently along the crest of the patient’s calf bone (tibia). If the big toe extends and the other toes abduct, and plantar reflex it can indicate brain or spinal cord trauma.
The patient holds a deep breath and blows into the closed fist by strongly contracting the abdominal muscles. If spinal pain increases it may indicate a herniated disk.
The patient is asked to lift the feet of 2-6 inches off the bed for 30 seconds. If the patient is unable to lift, hold the legs or feels spinal pain, it may indicate herniated disk and impinged lumbar nerve.
Special tests are carried out to confirm nerve irritation of the spine.
Passive neck flexion
With the patient supine, the examiner places the hands on the posterior side of the head over the occiput. Next, the head is passively flexed anteriorly with the chin reaching the chest. A positive result is reproduction of neurological symptoms to the lower extremities.
Vertebral artery test
The patient is in a supine position and the head gently pulled and twisted to each side. If blurred vision, dizziness, slurred speech, level of consciousness (LOC) appear it may indicate a partial or complete obstruction of the vertebral artery.
Spurling test - Foraminal compression
With the patient in a sitting position, the examiner exercises pressure with both hands on the patient’s head pushing downwards and flexing and the head laterally.
If pain arises on the flexed side it may indicate pressure on cervical nerve roots caused by osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, spinal stenosis or instability of the cervical spine. If the vertebral artery test is also positive it suggests damage to the vessel.
Neck distraction test - Manual traction test
With the patient lying on a supine position, the examiner places one hand under the patient’s chin and the other on the occiput. The head is gently lifted and an axial traction force is gradually applied up to 30 pounds. The test is positive if the pain is relieved or decreased when the head is lifted or distracted, indicating pressure on nerve roots.
Shoulder abduction test
The patient places the hand of the affected extremity on the head to support the arm in the scapular plane. A positive response is alleviation of patient symptoms that are associated with the relief of a sensory sign (also named Bakody’s sign) possibly due to a disc protrusion, impinging on the nerve or the nerve root. When positive, this test is also combined with motor weakness, radicular paraesthesia, lateral extradural lesions and a good response to surgical treatment.
When the patient has difficulties in swallowing (dysphagia), this could be due to the obstruction of the cervical spine caused by subluxation, osteophyte protrusion, soft tissue swelling, tumors of the anterior spine or a pathology of the esophagus (i.e. herniation of the mucous membrane). Lateral views of the cervical spine demonstrated approximately 25% anterolisthesis in a bilateral facet subluxation. There is a narrowing of the central canal secondary to the anterolisthesis.
Tinel’s sign - Brachial plexus test
This test determines the status of the brachial plexus, which is a group of nerves exiting the vertebrae from C4 to T1 innervating the shoulder and the arm. The patient is sitting with the head slightly bent to the side. The examiner taps the brachial plexus of the same side along the nerves from the neck to the shoulder. A positive sign shows a tingling sensation on the nerve fibres, indicating a pathology of the brachial plexus.
Mechanisms of “burners.”
(A) Traction to the brachial plexus from ipsilateral shoulder depression and contralateral lateral neck flexion.
(B) Direct blow to the supraclavicular fossa at Erb's point
(C) Compression of the cervical roots or brachial plexus from ipsilateral lateral flexion and hyperextension.
Brachial plexus stretch test
Pathologies of the brachial plexus produce a feeling of electric shock, numbness or burning sensation at the neck radiating to the arm. (In most severe cases when the nerves are severed the movement of the shoulder, arm and fingers may be impaired). For the stretch test, the patient is seated and the examiner places one hand on the shoulder and the other onto the head and stretches the brachial plexus by flexing the patient’s head. By stretching the neck to the right the pain radiating to the left shoulder indicates a pathology of the plexus. Conversely, a pain sensation radiating on the opposite right shoulder, is indicative of possible impingement of the nerve roots.
The patient holds both arms at shoulder level and bent at the elbows. The hands are opened and closed to a fist. The test is positive if the patient is unable to maintain the position, shows reduced hand function, or loss of sensation in the upper extremities? This may indicate a thoracic outlet syndrome (disorders caused by compression to vessels or nerves between collarbone and first rib (thoracic outlet). This causes pain in shoulders and neck and finger numbness.
Straight leg raise
Straight leg raise (SLR) is used to determine the irritation of the lumbosacral nerve. While lying on the back, passively flex the straight leg from the hip up to 90 degrees. Pain should be felt at an angle between 30º and 70º and disappear when lowering the leg at 10º. If positive, this test demonstrates a possible herniated disk and irritation of the sciatic nerve.
Test for lumbosacral nerve root irritation. Patient is supine, and the physician passively elevates each of the patient's legs in turn, keeping the knee extended, and flexing at the hip to an angle of 90º.
This test is used for lumbosacral nerve root irritation and to discriminate between a nerve or muscle origin of lower back pain. The patient is supine, and the examiner lowers the patient's leg about an inch from the position in which pain was elicited. While holding the leg elevated, the patient's foot is passively dorsiflexed. If pain is increased, a nerve aetiology is likely at L4, L5, or S1 levels; conversely a muscle aetiology is likely if no pain arises.
Variations of straight leg raise test:
Once reached the leg elevation causing the pain, flex the knee. If no pain is felt with straight leg raise, flex the cervical spine to the chest and repeat the test. Pain should be relieved by flexing the knee (Kerning) or aggravated by flexing the neck (Brudinski). Used for herniated disk and dural sheath irritation.
Well straight leg raising test
The patient straightens and raises the opposite leg to the one causing pain. If pain is felt on the leg lying low, it may indicate a herniated disk.
Seated at table edge, bend forward, flex the neck, extend one knee and dorsiflex the foot. If sciatic pain occurs it indicates a problem to the sciatic nerve.